Feb 22, 2011


Patients in the acute care setting may be discharged to an extended care facility. Patients requiring relatively short-term rehabilitation and those needing long-term care/permanent nursing care are included in this group. The level of care and needs of the patient (e.g., physical, occupational, rehabilitation therapy; IV and respiratory support) are frequently the deciding factors in the choice of placement. Although elderly people are the primary population in extended care facilities, increasing numbers of younger individuals are requiring care for debilitating conditions when they cannot be managed in the home setting.


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)


Cerebrovascular accident/Stroke

Craniocerebral trauma

Multiple sclerosis

Psychosocial aspects of care

Spinal cord injury

Surgical intervention

Ventilatory assistance (mechanical)

Patient Assessment Database

Data depend on underlying physical/psychosocial conditions necessitating continuation of structured care.


Discharge plan Projected mean length of stay: Depends on underlying disease/condition and

considerations: individual care needs. Therefore, this may be temporary or permanent placement.

May require assistance with treatments, self-care activities, homemaker/maintenance tasks, or alternate living arrangements (e.g., group home)

Refer to section at end of plan for postdischarge considerations.

DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES (dependent on age, general health,
and medical condition

CBC: Reveals problems such as infection, anemia, other abnormalities.

Chemistry profile: Evaluates general organ function/imbalances. Age-related changes include decreased serum albumin, up to 20% increase in alkaline phosphatase, decreased urine creatinine clearance.

Urinalysis: Provides information about kidney function; determines presence of urinary tract infection (UTI) or DM. Note: Bacteria is common in some populations, especially the elderly and bed-ridden, reflecting urinary stasis.

Pulse oximetry: Determines oxygenation, respiratory function.

Communicable disease screens: To rule out tuberculosis (TB), HIV, venereal disease, hepatitis.

Drug screen: As indicated by usage to identify therapeutic or toxic levels.

Visual acuity testing: Identifies cataracts/other vision problems.

Tonometer test: Measures intraocular pressure.

Chest x-ray: Reveals size of heart, lung abnormalities/disease conditions, changes of the large blood vessels and bony structure of the chest.

ECG: Provides baseline data; detects abnormalities, e.g., ST segment and T wave changes, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and various heart blocks are common in the elderly.


1. Promote physiological and psychological well-being.

2. Provide for security and safety.

3. Prevent complications of disease and/or aging process.

4. Promote effective coping skills and independence.

5. Encourage continuation of healthy habits, participation in plan of care to meet individual needs and wishes.


1. Patient dealing realistically with current situation.

2. Homeostasis maintained.

3. Injury prevented.

4. Complications/prevented/minimized.

5. Patient meeting ADLs by self/with assistance as necessary.

6. Plan in place to meet needs after discharge as appropriate.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Anxiety [specify level]/Fear

May be related to

Change in health status, role functioning, interaction patterns, socioeconomic status, environment

Unmet needs; recent life changes, loss of friends/SO

Possibly evidenced by

Apprehension, restlessness, repetitive questioning; pacing, purposeless activity; insomnia

Various behaviors (appears overexcited, withdrawn, worried, fearful); presence of facial tension, trembling, hand tremors

Expressed concern regarding changes in life events

Focus on self; lack of interest in activity


Anxiety or Fear Control (NOC)

Verbalize understanding of reasons for change, as able.

Demonstrate appropriate range of feelings and lessened fear.

Participate in routine and special/social events as capable.

Verbalize acceptance of situation.


Anxiety Reduction (NIC)


Provide patient/SO with a copy of “A Patient’s Bill of Rights” and review it with them. Discuss facility’s rules, e.g., visitors, off-grounds visits, personal property.

Ascertain if patient has completed Advance Directives. Provide information as appropriate.

Determine patient/SO attitude toward admission to facility and expectations for the future.

Help family/SO to be honest with patient regarding admission. Be clear about actions/events.


Provides information that can foster confidence that individual rights do continue in this setting and the patient is still “his or her own person” and has some control over what happens.

Assures patient/family wishes will be known to provide direction to caregivers.

If this is expected to be a temporary placement, patient/
SO concerns will be different than if placement is permanent. When patient is giving up own home and way of life, feelings of helplessness, loss, and grief are to be expected.

Family may have difficulty dealing with decision/
reality of permanent placement and may avoid discussing situation with patient. Honesty decreases “surprises,” assists in maintaining trust, and may enhance coping.


Anxiety Reduction (NIC)


Identify support person(s) important to patient and include in care activities, mealtime, and so on, as appropriate.

Assess level of anxiety and discuss reasons when possible.

Develop nurse-patient relationship.

Make time to listen to patient about concerns, and encourage free expression of feelings, e.g., anger, hostility, fear, and loneliness.

Acknowledge reality of situation and feelings of patient. Accept expressions of anger while limiting aggressive, acting-out behavior.

Identify strengths and successful coping behaviors and incorporate into problem solving.

Orient to physical aspects of facility, schedules, and activities. Introduce to roommate(s) and staff. Give explanation of roles.

Determine patient’s usual schedule and incorporate into facility routine as much as possible.

Provide above information in written or taped form as well.

Give careful thought to room placement. Provide help and encouragement in placing patient’s own belongings around room. Do not transfer from one room to another without patient approval/documentable need.


During adjustment period/times of stress, patient may benefit from presence of trusted individual who can provide reassurance and reduce sense of isolation.

Identifying specific problems enables individual to deal more realistically with them and care provider to intervene as necessary, e.g., patient who is being neglected or abused or has unrelieved pain may be very anxious and afraid or unable to verbalize.

Trusting relationships among patient/SO/staff promotes optimal care and support.

Being available in this way allows patient to feel accepted, begin to acknowledge and deal with feelings related to circumstances of admission.

Permission to express feelings allows for beginning resolution. Acceptance promotes sense of self-worth. Note: Psychosocial and/or physiological disturbances can occur as a result of transfer from one environment to another (i.e., relocation stress syndrome).

Building on past successes increases likelihood of positive outcome in present situation. Enhances sense of control and management of current deficits.

Getting acquainted is an important part of admission. Knowledge of where things are and who patient can expect assistance from can be helpful in reducing anxiety.

Consistency provides reassurance and may lessen confusion and enhance cooperation.

Overload of information is difficult to remember. Patient can refer to written or taped material as needed to refresh memory/learn new information.

Location, roommate compatibility, and place for personal belongings are important considerations for helping the patient feel “at home.” Changes are often met with resistance and can result in emotional upset and decline in physical condition. Note: Persons with severe behavioral problems/cognitive dysfunctions may require a private room.


Anxiety Reduction (NIC)


Note behavior, presence of suspiciousness/paranoia, irritability, defensiveness. Compare to SO’s description of customary responses.

Be aware of escalating anxiety, presence of delirium. Look for possible causes.


Refer to social service or other appropriate agency for assistance. Have case manager, social worker discuss ramifications of Medicare/Medicaid if patient is eligible for these resources.


Increased stress, physical discomfort, and fatigue may temporarily exacerbate mental deterioration (cognitive inaccessibility) and further impair communication (social inaccessibility). This represents a catastrophic episode that can escalate into a panic state and violence.

Common causes of delirium include drug toxicity, electrolyte imbalances withdrawal states (alcohol, other drugs), pain/trauma (especially hip fractures), and advanced disease resulting in organ failure.

Often patient is not aware of the resources available, and providing current information about individual coverage/
limitations and other possible sources of support will assist with adjustment to new situation.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Grieving, anticipatory

May be related to

Perceived, actual or potential loss of physiopsychosocial well-being, personal possessions, or SO; cultural beliefs about aging/debilitation

Possibly evidenced by

Denial of feelings, depression, sorrow, guilt

Alterations in the activity level, sleep patterns, eating habits, libido


Grief Resolution (NOC)

Identify and express feelings appropriately.

Progress through the grieving process.

Enjoy the present and plan for the future, one day at a time.


Grief Work Facilitation (NIC)


Assess emotional state. Note cultural beliefs, expectations.

Make time to listen to the patient. Encourage free expression of hopeless feelings and desire to die.

Assess suicidal potential.

Involve SO in discussions and activities to the level of their willingness.

Provide liberal touching/hugs as individually accepted.

Identify spiritual concerns. Discuss available resources and encourage participation in religious activities as appropriate.

Assist with/plan for specifics as necessary (e.g., Advance Directives to determine code status/Living Will wishes, making of will, funeral arrangements, if appropriate)


Refer to other resources as indicated, e.g., clinical specialist nurse, case manager/social worker, spiritual advisor.


Anxiety and depression are common reactions to changes/losses associated with long-term illness or debilitating condition. In addition, changes in neurotransmitter levels (e.g., increased monoamine oxidase [MAO] and serotonin levels with decreased norepinephrine) may potentiate depression in elderly patients. Personal expectations may affect response to change.

It is more helpful to allow these feelings to be expressed and dealt with than to deny or ignore them.

May be related to physical disease, social isolation, and grief. Note: Studies indicate women are three times as likely to attempt suicide; however, men are three times as likely to succeed.

When SOs are involved, there is more potential for successful problem solving. Note: SO may not be available or may not choose to be involved.

Conveys sense of concern/closeness to reduce feelings of isolation and enhance sense of self-worth. Note: Touch may be viewed as a threat by some patients and escalate feelings of anger.

Search for meaning is common to those facing changes in life. Participation in religious/spiritual activities can provide sense of direction and peace of mind.

Having these issues resolved can help patient/SO deal with the grieving process and may provide peace of mind.

May need further assistance to resolve some problems.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Thought Processes, altered

May be related to

Physiological changes of aging, loss of cells/brain atrophy, decreased blood supply, altered sensory input

Pain; effects of medications

Psychological conflicts: Disrupted life pattern

Possibly evidenced by

Slower reaction times, gradual memory loss, altered attention span; disorientation; inability to follow

Altered sleep patterns

Personality changes


Cognitive Ability (NOC)

Maintain usual reality orientation.

Risk Control (NOC)

Recognize changes in thinking and behavior.

Identify interventions to deal effectively with situation/deficits.


Cognitive Stimulation (NIC)


Allow adequate time for patient to respond to questions/comments and to make decisions.

Discuss happenings of the past. Place familiar objects in room. Encourage the display of photographs/photo albums, frequent visits from SO/friends.

Note patient’s problem of short-term memory loss, and provide with aids (e.g., calendars, clocks, room signs, pictures) to assist in continual reorientation.

Evaluate individual stress level and deal with it appropriately.


Reaction time may be slowed with aging (changes in metabolism/cerebral blood flow) or with brain injuries and some neuromuscular conditions.

Events of the past may be more readily recalled by the elderly patient, because long-term memory usually remains intact. Reminiscence/life review and companionship are beneficial to patients.

Short-term memory loss presents a challenge for nursing care, especially if the patient cannot remember such things as how to use the call bell or how to get to the bathroom. This problem is not in patient’s control but may be less frustrating if simple reminders are used. It may be helpful for older person (and family) to know that short-term memory loss is common and is not necessarily a sign of “senility.”

Stress level may be greatly increased because of recent losses, e.g., poor health, death of spouse/companion, loss of home. In addition, some conflicts that occur with age come from previously unresolved problems that may need to be dealt with now.


Cognitive Stimulation (NIC)


Assess physical status/psychiatric symptoms. Institute interventions appropriate to findings.

Reorient to person/place and time as appropriate.

Have patient repeat verbal/written instructions.

Note cyclic changes in mentation/behavior, e.g., evening confusion, picking at bedclothes, banging on side rails, pacing, shouting, wandering aimlessly.

Involve in regular exercise, activity, and diversional programs.

Schedule at least one rest period per day.

Provide brighter lighting in room/area by midafternoon (e.g., 3 pm) or earlier on cloudy/winter days.

Turn off lights at bedtime. Provide night lights where appropriate.

Support patient’s involvement in own care. Provide opportunity for choices on a daily basis.


Review results of laboratory/diagnostic tests, e.g., electrolytes, thyroid studies, rapid plasma reagin (RPR), full drug screen, computerized tomography (CT) scan.

Administer medications as indicated, e.g., tacrine (Cognex), donepazil (Aricept).


Not all mental changes are the result of aging, and it is important to rule out physical causes before accepting these as unchangeable. May be pain (often unreported/ underestimated), metabolic, toxic, drug-induced (e.g., antiparkinson agents, tricyclic antidepressants), or the result of infectious, cardiac, or respiratory disorders.

Helps patient maintain focus.

Verifies hearing/ability to read and comprehend.

“Sundowner syndrome” may occur in response to visual/hearing deficits enhanced by declining light, fatigue, inflexible institution schedules, peak/trough drug levels, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Promotes release of endorphins enhancing sense of well-being and can improve thinking abilities. Note: Studies suggest withdrawn and inactive patients are at greater risk of evening confusion.

Prevents fatigue; enhances general well-being.

Maximizes visual perception; may limit evening confusion.

Reinforces “sleep time” while meeting safety needs.

Choice is a necessary component in everyday life. Cognitively impaired patients may respond with aggressive behavior as they lose control in their lives.

Aids in establishing cause of changes in mentation and determining treatment options. Note: The latter four tests can identify the causes of dementia in 90% of the cases.

These drugs may fight dementia by blocking chemical breakdown of acetylcholine and improving cholinergic function. Aricept has been shown to improve intellectual ability and daily functioning in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (as assessed by Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale [ADAS-Cog]).

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Family Coping, ineffective: compromised

May be related to

Placement of family member in extended care facility

Temporary family disorganization and role changes

Situational/transitional crises SO may be facing

Patient providing little support for SO

Prolonged disease or disability progression that exhausts the supportive capacity of SOs

Possibly evidenced by

SO describes significant preoccupation with personal reactions, e.g., fear, anticipatory grief, guilt, anxiety

SO attempts assistive/supportive behaviors with unsatisfactory results

SO withdraws from patient

SO displays protective behavior disproportionate (too little or too much) to patient’s abilities/need for autonomy


Coping (NOC)

Identify/verbalize resources within themselves to deal with the situation.

Interact appropriately with the patient and staff, providing support and assistance as indicated.

Verbalize knowledge and understanding of situation.


Family Support (NIC)


Introduce staff and provide SO with information about facility and care. Be available for questions. Provide tour of facility.

Determine involvement and availability of family/SO.

Encourage SO participation in care at level of desire and capability and within limits of safety. Include in social events/celebrations.

Accept choices of SO regarding level of involvement in care.

Evaluate SO’s/caregiver’s level of stress/coping abilities, especially before planning for discharge.

Support the caregiver with attention, compassion, time, respect, honesty, advocacy, and understanding.


Helpful to establish beginning relationships. Offers opportunities for enhancing feelings of involvement.

Clarifies expectations and abilities, identifies needs.

Helps family to feel at ease and allows them to feel supportive and a part of the patient’s life.

Families may choose to ignore patient or may project feelings of guilt regarding placing patient in facility by criticizing staff. Note: Feelings of dissatisfaction with the staff may be transferred back to the patient.

Caring for/about patients with chronic/debilitating conditions places a heavy strain on SO. Although support groups may be very helpful, learning stress management techniques may be more effective in strengthening individual coping as the focus is on the SO rather than the SO-patient relationship.

Nursing interventions need to prepare the caregivers for the challenges they face, and meet their needs for compassion and caring.


Family Support (NIC)


Identify availability and use of community support systems.

Be aware of staff’s own feelings of anger and frustration about patient’s/SO’s choices and goals that differ from those of staff, and deal with appropriately.


Inform SO of services available to them (meal tickets, family cooking time, group care conference, visiting nurse, caseworker, social services).

Advise caregivers of resources available, such as Eldercare Locator, Seniornet, Today’s Caregiver, Caregiver Network, Inc.


Helps determine areas of need and provides information regarding additional resources to enhance coping.

Group care conferences or individual counseling may be helpful in problem solving.

Promotes feeling of involvement; eases transition in adjustment to patient’s admission to homecare or facility care.

Helps nurses, patients, and caregivers feel supported and able to provide more skillful care.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Poisoning, risk for [drug toxicity]

Risk factors may include

Reduced metabolism; impaired circulation; precarious physiological balance, presence of multiple diseases/organ involvement

Use of multiple prescribed/OTC drugs

Possibly evidenced by

[Not applicable; presence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual diagnosis]


Risk Control: Drug Use (NOC)

Maintain prescribed drug regimen free of untoward side effects.


Medication Management (NIC)


Determine allergies, medication, and other drug use history.

Review resources (e.g., drug manuals, pharmacist) for information about toxic symptoms and side effects. List drug actions and interactions and idiosyncracies, e.g., medications that are given with or without foods, as well as those that should not be crushed.


Helps avoid repetition/creation of problems.

Provides information about drugs being taken and identifies possible interactions. Toxicity can be increased in the debilitated and older patient with symptoms not as apparent.


Medication Management (NIC)


Discuss self-administration of/access to OTC products.

Identify swallowing problems or reluctance to take tablets or capsules.

Give pills in a spoonful of soft foods, e.g., applesauce, ice cream; or use liquid form of medication if available.

Open capsules or crush tablets only when appropriate.

Make sure medication has been swallowed.

Observe for changes in condition/behavior.

Use discretion in the administration of sedatives.


Review drug regimen routinely with physician and pharmacist.

Obtain serum drug levels as indicated.


Limits interference with prescribed regimen/desired drug action and organ function. May prevent inadvertent overdosing/toxic reactions. Note: Appropriate use of OTC products kept at bedside or via free access at nurses’ station fosters independence and enhances sense of control and self-esteem.

May not be able to or want to take medication.

Ensures proper dosage if patient is unable to/does not like to swallow pills.

Should not be done unless absolutely necessary because this may alter absorption of medications, e.g. enteric-coated tablets may be absorbed in stomach when crushed, instead of the intestines.

Ensures effective therapeutic use of medication and prevents pill hoarding.

Behavior may be only indication of drug toxicity, and early identification of problems provides for appropriate intervention. Note: Elderly individuals have increased sensitivity to anticholinergic effects of medications; therefore, use of anticholinergics, antiparkinson agents, benzodiazepines, CNS depressants, and tricyclic antidepressants may cause delirium/confusion.

A quiet place where the patient can pace, or seclusion, may be more helpful. If patient is destructive or excessively disruptive, pharmacological or mechanical control measures may be required. Convenience of the staff is never a reason for sedating patient; however, patient safety and rights of other patients need to be taken into consideration.

Provides opportunity to alter therapy (e.g., reduce dosage, discontinue medications) as patient’s needs and organ functions change.

Determines therapeutic/toxicity levels.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Communication, impaired verbal

May be related to

Degenerative changes (e.g., reduced cerebral circulation, hearing loss); progressive neurological disease (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease)

Laryngectomy/tracheostomy; stroke, traumatic brain injury

Possibly evidenced by

Impaired articulation; difficulty with phonation; inability to modulate speech, find words, name, or identify objects (aphasia, dysarthria)

Diminished hearing ability


Communication Ability (NOC)

Establish method of communication by which needs can be expressed.

Demonstrate congruent verbal and nonverbal communication.


Communication Enhancement:
Speech Deficit (NIC)


Assess reason for lack of communication, including CNS and neuromuscular functioning, gag/swallow reflexes, hearing, teeth/mouth problems.

Determine whether patient is bilingual or whether English is primary language.

Investigate how SO communicates with the patient.

Assess patient knowledge base and level of comprehension. Treat the patient as an adult, avoiding pity and impatience.

Establish therapeutic nurse-patient relationship through Active-Listening, being available for problem solving.

Make patient aware of presence when entering the room by speaking, turning a light off and on/touching patient or mattress as appropriate.


Identification of the problem is essential to appropriate intervention. Sometimes patients do not want to talk, may think they talk when they do not, may expect others to know what they want, may not be able to comprehend or be understood.

With declining cerebral function/diminished thought processes, increased level of stress, patient may mix languages/revert to original language.

Provide opportunity to develop/continue effective communication patterns, which have already been established.

Knowing how much to expect of the patient can help to avoid frustration and unreasonable demands for performance. However, having an expectation that the patient will understand may help raise level of performance.

Aids in dealing with communication problems.

Getting attention is the first step in communication.


Communication Enhancement:
Speech Deficit (NIC)


Make eye contact, place self at or below patient’s level, and speak face to face.

Speak slowly and distinctly, using simple sentences, yes-or-no questions. Avoid speaking loudly or shouting. Supplement with written communication when possible/needed. Allow sufficient time for reply; remain relaxed with patient.

Use other creative measures to assist in communication, e.g., picture chart/alphabet board, sign language, lip reading when appropriate.

Communication Enhancement:
Hearing Deficit (NIC)

Check ears for excess cerumen.

Ascertain if patient has/uses hearing aid.

Be aware that behavioral problems may be associated with hearing loss.


Refer to speech therapists, ear, nose, and throat physician, or for audiometry as needed.


Conveys interest and promotes contact.

Assists in comprehension and overall communication. Patient may respond poorly to high-pitched sounds; shouting also obscures consonants and amplifies vowels.

Many options are available, depending on individual situation. Note: Sign language also may be used effectively with other than hearing-impaired individuals.

Hardened earwax may decrease hearing acuity and causes tinnitus.

Patient may have, but not use, hearing aid (e.g., may not fit well, may need batteries).

Anger, explosive temper outbursts, frustration, embarrassment, depression, withdrawal, and paranoia may be attempts to deal with communication problems.

Determines extent of hearing loss and whether a hearing aid is appropriate. May be helpful to a patient and staff in improving communication. Note: Some sources believe 90% of the patients in extended care facilities have some degree of hearing loss (presbycusis) because this is a common age change. Hearing aids are most effective with conductive losses and may help with sensorineural losses.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Sleep Pattern disturbance

May be related to

Internal factors: illness, psychological stress, inactivity

External factors: environmental changes, facility routines

Possibly evidenced by

Reports of difficulty in falling asleep/not feeling well-rested

Interrupted sleep, awakening earlier than desired

Change in behavior/performance, increasing irritability, listlessness


Sleep (NOC)

Report improvement in sleep/rest pattern.

Verbalize increased sense of well-being and feeling rested.


Sleep Enhancement (NIC)


Ascertain usual sleep habits and changes that are occurring.

Provide comfortable bedding and some of own possessions, e.g., pillow, afghan.

Establish new sleep routine incorporating old pattern and new environment.

Match with roommate who has similar sleep patterns and nocturnal needs.

Encourage some light physical activity during the day. Make sure patient stops activity several hours before bedtime as individually appropriate.

Promote bedtime comfort regimens, e.g., warm bath and massage, a glass of warm milk, wine, or brandy at bedtime.

Instruct in relaxation measures.

Reduce noise and light.

Encourage position of comfort, assist in turning.


Determines need for action and helps identify appropriate interventions.

Increases comfort for sleep and physiological/
psychological support.

When new routine contains as many aspects of old habits as possible, stress and related anxiety may be reduced, enhancing sleep.

Decreases likelihood that “night owl” roommate may delay patient’s falling asleep or create interruptions that cause awakening.

Daytime activity can help patient expand energy and be ready for nighttime sleep; however, continuation of activity close to bedtime may act as a stimulant, delaying sleep.

Promotes a relaxing, soothing effect. Note: Milk has soporific qualities, enhancing synthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps patient fall asleep faster and sleep longer.

Helps induce sleep.

Provides atmosphere conducive to sleep.

Repositioning alters areas of pressure and promotes rest.


Sleep Enhancement (NIC)


Use side rails as indicated; lower bed when possible.

Avoid interruptions when possible (e.g., awakening for medications or therapies).


Administer sedatives, hypnotics, as indicated.


May have fear of falling because of change in size and height of bed. Side rails provide safety and may be used to assist with turning. Note: Some people do better with no side rails and are at risk for falling when climbing over side rails.

Uninterrupted sleep is more restful, and patient may be unable to return to sleep when wakened.

May be given to help patient sleep/rest during transition period from home to new setting. Note: Avoid habitual use, because these drugs decrease REM (rapid eye movement) sleep time.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Nutrition: Altered, less/more than body requirements

May be related to

Impaired dentition; dulling of senses of smell and taste

Cognitive limitations, depression

Inability to feed self effectively

Sedentary activity level

Possibly evidenced by

Reported/observed dysfunctional eating patterns

Weight under/over ideal for height and frame

Poor muscle tone, pale conjunctiva/mucous membranes

Signs/symptoms of vitamin/protein deficits, electrolyte imbalances


Nutritional Status (NOC)

Maintain normal weight or progress toward weight goal with normalization of laboratory values and be free of signs of malnutrition/obesity.

Demonstrate eating patterns/behaviors to maintain appropriate weight.


Nutrition Management (NIC)


Assess causes of weight loss/gain, e.g., dysphagia due to decreased saliva production, neurogenic/psychogenic disturbances, tumors, muscular dysfunction, altered senses of smell and taste, or dysfunctional eating patterns related to depression.

Check state of patient’s dental health periodically, including fit and condition of dentures, if present.

Weigh on admission and on a regular basis.

Monitor total caloric intake as indicated.

Observe condition of skin; note muscle wasting, brittle nails; dry, lifeless hair, and signs of poor healing.

Evaluate activity pattern.

Incorporate favorite foods and maintain as near-normal food consistency as possible, e.g., soft or finely ground food with gravy or liquid added. Avoid baby food whenever possible.

Encourage the use of spices (other than sodium) to patient’s personal taste.

Provide small, frequent feedings as indicated.

Serve hot foods hot and cold foods cold.

Promote a pleasant environment for eating, with company if possible.

Have healthy snack foods (e.g., cheese, crackers, soup, fruit) available on a 24-hr basis.

Plan for social events; provide for snacks, even when working to reduce total calories.


Aids in creating plan of care/choice of interventions. Note: In elderly patients saliva secretion may be decreased by as much as 66%, taste buds atrophy with reduced sensitivity to sweet and salt.

Oral infections/dental problems, shrinking gums, and loose-fitting dentures decrease patient’s ability to chew.

Monitors nutritional state and effectiveness of interventions.

If dietary plan is ineffective in meeting individual goals, calorie count/food diary may help identify problem areas.

Reflects lack of adequate nutrition.

Extremes of exercise (e.g., sedentary life, continuous pacing) affect caloric needs.

Aids in maintaining intake, especially when mouth and dental problems exist. Baby food is often unpalatable and can decrease appetite and lower self-esteem.

Reduction in number and acuity of taste buds results in food tasting bland and decreases enjoyment of food and desire to eat.

Decreased gastric motility causes patient to feel full and reduces intake.

Foods served at the proper temperature are more palatable, and enjoyment may increase appetite.

Eating is in part a social event, and appetite can improve with increased socialization.

Helps meet individual needs and enhances intake with caloric recommendations.

Eating is part of socialization, and being able to respond to body’s needs enhances sense of control and willingness to participate in dietary program.


Nutrition Management (NIC)


Encourage exercise and activity program within individual ability.


Consult with dietitian.

Provide balanced diet with individually appropriate protein, complex carbohydrates, and calories. Include supplements between meals as indicated.

Administer vitamin/mineral supplements as appropriate.

Refer for dental care routinely and as needed.


Promotes sense of well-being and may improve appetite.

Aids in establishing specific nutritional program to meet individual patient needs.

Adjustments may be needed to deal with the body’s decreased ability to process protein, as well as decreased metabolic rate and levels of activity. Note: Reduced production of salivary ptyalin inhibits digestion of complex carbohydrates in elderly individuals affecting dietary plan. In addition, delayed insulin release by the pancreas and reduced peripheral sensitivity to insulin decrease their glucose tolerance.

With age, renal and other regulatory systems cannot compensate as well for errors in intake. Mineral requirements change as hormone levels, metabolism, and GI function change. In addition, absorption can be impaired by medication use and chronic illness.

Maintenance of oral/dental health and good dentition can enhance intake.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Self-Care deficit: (specify)

May be related to

Depression, discouragement, loss of mobility, general debilitation; perceptual/cognitive impairment

Possibly evidenced by

Inability to manage ADLs; unkempt appearance


Self-Care: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (NOC)

Peform self-care activities within level of own ability.

Demonstrate techniques/lifestyle changes to meet own needs.

Use resources effectively.


Self-Care Assistance (NIC)


Determine current capabilities (0–4 scale) and barriers to participation in care.

Involve patient in formulation of plan of care at level of ability.

Encourage self-care. Work with present abilities; do not pressure patient beyond capabilities. Provide adequate time for patient to complete tasks. Have expectation of improvement and assist as needed.

Provide and promote privacy, including during bathing/showering.

Use specialized equipment as needed, e.g., tub transfer seat, grab bars, raised toilet seat.

Give tub bath, using a two-person or mechanical lift if necessary. Use shower chair and spray attachment, as appropriate. Avoid chilling.

Shampoo/style hair as needed. Provide/assist with manicure.

Encourage use of barber/beauty salon if patient is able.

Acquire clothing with modified fasteners as indicated.

Encourage/assist with routine mouth/teeth care daily.


Consult with physical/occupational therapists and rehabilitation specialist.


Identifies need for/level of interventions required.

Enhances sense of control and aids in cooperation and maintenance of independence.

Doing for oneself enhances feeling of self-worth. Failure can produce discouragement and depression.

Modesty may lead to reluctance to participate in care or perform activities in the presence of others.

Enhances ability to move/perform activities safely.

Provides safety for those who cannot get into the tub alone. Shower may be more feasible for some patients, though it may be less beneficial/desirable to the patient. Elderly/debilitated patients are more prone to chilling.

Aids in maintaining appearance. Shampooing may be required more/less frequently than bathing schedule.

Enhances self-image and self-esteem, preserving dignity of the patient.

Use of Velcro instead of buttons/shoe laces can facilitate process of dressing/undressing.

Reduces risk of gum disease/tooth loss; promotes proper fitting of dentures.

Useful in establishing exercise/activity program and in identifying assistive devices to meet individual needs/
facilitate independence.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Skin Integrity, risk for impaired

Risk factors may include

General debilitation; reduced mobility; changes in skin and muscle mass associated with aging, sensory/motor deficits

Altered circulation; edema; poor nutrition

Excretions/secretions (bladder and bowel incontinence)

Problems with self-care

Possibly evidenced by

[Not applicable; presence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual diagnosis]


Risk Control (NOC)

Maintain intact skin.

Identify individual risk factors.

Demonstrate behaviors/techniques to prevent skin breakdown/facilitate healing.


Skin Surveillance (NIC)


Inspect skin, tissues, and mucous membranes routinely.

Anticipate and use preventive measures in patients who are at risk for skin breakdown, such as anyone who is thin, obese, aging, or debilitated.

Assess nutritional status and initiate corrective measures as indicated. Provide balanced diet, e.g., adequate protein, vitamins, and minerals.

Maintain strict skin hygiene, using mild, nondetergent soap (if any), drying gently and thoroughly, and lubricating with lotion or emollient.

Change position frequently in bed and chair. Recommend 10 min of exercise each hour and/or perform passive ROM.


Provides opportunity for early intervention in potential high-risk population, who may have thin, less elastic, and more fragile skin and tissues.

Decubitus ulcers are difficult to heal, and prevention is the best treatment.

A positive nitrogen balance and improved nutritional state can help prevent skin breakdown and promote ulcer healing. Note: May need additional calories and protein if draining ulcer present.

A daily bath is usually not necessary in elderly patients because there is atrophy of sebaceous and sweat glands, and bathing may create dry-skin problems. However, as epidermis thins with age, cleansing and use of lubricants is needed to keep skin soft/pliable and protect susceptible skin from breakdown.

Improved circulation, muscle tone, and joint motion and promotes patient participation.


Skin Surveillance (NIC)


Use a rotation schedule in turning patient. Use draw/
turn sheet. Pay close attention to patient’s comfort level.

Massage bony prominences gently with lotion or cream.

Keep sheets and bedclothes clean, dry, and free from wrinkles, crumbs, and other irritating material.

Use elbow/heel protectors, foam/water or gel pads, sheepskin for positioning in bed and when up in chair.

Provide for safety during ambulation, using appropriate adaptive devices, e.g., walker, cane.

Limit exposure to temperature extremes/use of heating pad or ice pack.

Examine feet and nails routinely and provide foot and nail care as indicated:

Keep nails cut short and smooth;

Use lotion, softening cream on feet;

Check for fissures between toes, swab with hydrogen peroxide or dust with antiseptic powder, and place a wisp of cotton between the toes;

Rub feet with witch hazel or a mentholated preparation and have patient wear lightweight cotton stockings.


Allows for longer periods free of pressure; prevents shearing or tearing motions that can damage fragile tissues. Note: Use of prone position depends on patient tolerance and should be maintained for only a short time.

Enhances circulation to tissues, increases vascular tone, and reduces tissue edema. Note: Contraindicated if area is pink/red because cellular damage may occur. Gentle massage around area may stimulate circulation to impaired tissues.

Avoids friction/abrasions of skin.

Reduces risk of tissue abrasions and decreases pressure that can impair cellular blood flow. Promotes circulation of air along skin surface to dissipate heat/moisture.

Loss of muscle strength and flexibility and physical disease process/debilitation may result in impaired coordination.

Decreased sensitivity to pain/heat/cold increases risk of tissue trauma.

Foot problems are common among patients who are elderly, diabetic, bedfast, and/or debilitated.

Jagged, rough nails can cause tissue damage/infection.

Prevents drying/cracking of skin; promotes maintenance of healthy skin.

Prevents spread of infection and/or tissue injury.

Even though rash may not be present, burning and itching may be a problem. Note: Witch hazel may be contraindicated if skin is dry.


Skin Surveillance (NIC)


Inspect skin surface/folds (especially when incontinence pad/pants are used) and bony prominences routinely. Increase preventive measures when reddened areas are noticed.

Continue regimen for redness and irritation when break in skin occurs.

Observe for decubitus ulcer development, and treat immediately according to protocol.


Provide waterbed, alternating pressure/egg-crate or gel mattress, and pad for chair.

Monitor Hb/Hct and blood glucose levels.

Refer to podiatrist as indicated.

Provide whirlpool treatments as appropriate.

Assist with topical applications; hydrogel dressings; skin barrier dressings (Duoderm, Op-Site); collagenase therapy; absorbable gelatin sponges (Gelfoam); aerosol sprays.

Administer nutritional supplements and vitamins as indicated.

Prepare for/assist with skin grafting (Refer to CP: Burns, ND: Skin Integrity, impaired.)


Skin breakdown can occur quickly with potential for infection and necrosis, possibly involving muscle and bone. There is increased risk of redness/irritation around legs due to elastic bands in adult diapers/incontinence pads.

Aggressive measures are important because decubitus ulcers can develop in a matter of a few hours.

Timely intervention may prevent extensive damage.

Provides protection and improved circulation by decreasing amount of pressure on tissues.

Anemia, dehydration, and elevated glucose levels are factors in skin breakdown and can impair healing.

May need professional care for such problems as ingrown toenails, corns, bony changes, skin/tissue ulceration.

Increases circulation and has a debriding action.

Although there are differing opinions about the efficacy of these agents, individual or combination use may enhance healing.

Aids in healing/cellular regeneration.

May be needed to close large ulcers.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Urinary Elimination, risk for altered

Rick factors may include

Changes in fluid/nutritional pattern

Neuromuscular changes

Perceptual/cognitive impairment

Possibly evidenced by

[Not applicable; presence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual diagnosis]


Urinary Elimination (NOC)

Maintain/regain effective pattern of elimination.

Initiate necessary lifestyle changes.

Participate in treatment regimen to correct/control situation, e.g., bladder training program or use of indwelling catheter.


Urinary Elimination Management (NIC)


Monitor voiding pattern. Identify possible reasons for changes, e.g., disorientation, neuromuscular impairment, psychotropic medications.

Palpate bladder. Observe for “overflow” voiding; determine frequency and timing of dribbling/voiding.

Promote fluid intake of 2000–3000 mL/day within cardiac tolerance; include fruit juices, especially cranberry juice. Schedule fluid intake times appropriately.

Institute bladder program (including scheduled voiding times, Kegel exercise) involving patient and staff in a positive manner.

Assist patient to sit upright on bedpan/commode.

Provide/encourage perineal care daily and as needed.


This information is essential to plan for care and influences choice of individual interventions. Nocturia, frequency, and urgency are common because bladder capacity and/or tone is affected. Bladder pelvic muscles and sphincter tone may be affected.

Bladder distension indicates urinary retention, which may cause incontinence and infection.

Maintains adequate hydration and promotes kidney function. Acid-ash juices act as an internal pH acidifier, retarding bacterial growth. Note: Patient may decrease fluid intake in an attempt to control incontinence, and become dehydrated. Instead, fluids may be scheduled to decrease frequency of incontinence (e.g., limit fluids after 6 pm to reduce need to void during the night).

Regular toileting times may help control incontinence. Program is more apt to be successful when positive attitudes and cooperation are present.

Provides functional position for voiding.

Reduces risk of contamination/ascending infection.


Urinary Elimination Management (NIC)


Use adult incontinence pads/pants during day if needed. Keep patient clean and dry. Provide frequent skin care.

Avoid verbal or nonverbal signs of rejection, disgust, or disapproval over failures.

Provide regular catheter care and maintain patency if indwelling catheter is present.


Administer medications as indicated, e.g.:

Oxybutynin chloride (Ditropan); tolterodine tartrate (Detrol);

Vitamin C, methenamine mandelate (Mandelamine).

Maintain indwelling catheter/provide intermittent catheterization.

Irrigate catheter with acetic acid, if indicated.


When training is unsuccessful, this is the preferred method of management. Note: Using incontinence pads during night exposes skin to air, reducing risk of irritation.

Expressions of disapproval lower self-esteem and are not helpful to a successful program.

Prevents infection and/or minimizes reflux.

Promotes bladder sphincter control.

Bladder pH acidifiers retard bacterial growth.

May be used if continence cannot be maintained to prevent skin breakdown and resultant problems.

May be done to maintain acid pH and retard bacterial growth.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Constipation/Diarrhea, risk for

Risk factors may include

Changes in/inadequate nutrition or fluid intake; poor muscle tone, change in level of activity

Medication side effects

Perceptual/cognitive impairment, depression

Lack of privacy

Possibly evidenced by

[Not applicable; presence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual diagnosis]


Bowel Elimination (NOC)

Establish/maintain normal patterns of bowel functioning.

Demonstrate changes in lifestyle as necessitated by risk or contributing factors.

Participate in bowel program, as indicated.


Bowel Management (NIC)


Ascertain usual bowel pattern and aids used (e.g., previous long-term laxative use). Compare with current routine.

Assess reasons for problems; rule out medical causes, e.g., bowel obstruction, cancer, hemorrhoids, drugs, impaction.

Determine presence of food/drug sensitivities.

Institute individualized program of exercise, rest, diet, and bowel retraining.

Provide diet high in bulk in the form of whole-grain cereals, breads, fresh fruits (especially prunes, plums).

Decrease or eliminate foods such as dairy products.

Encourage increased fluid intake.

Use adult incontinence pads/pants, if needed. Keep patient clean and dry. Provide frequent perineal care. Apply skin protective ointment to anal area.

Keep air freshener in room/at bedside or in bathroom.

Give emotional support to patient. Avoid “blaming” (talk/actions) if incontinence occurs.


Administer medications as indicated:

Bulk-providers/stool softeners, e.g., Metamucil;

Camphorated tincture of opium (Paregoric), diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil).


Determines extent of problem and indicates need for/type of interventions appropriate. Many patients may already be laxative-dependent, and it is important to re-establish as near-normal functioning as possible.

Identification/treatment of underlying medical condition is necessary to achieve optimal bowel function.

May contribute to diarrhea.

Depends on the needs of the patient. Loss of muscular tone reduces peristalsis or may impair control of rectal sphincter.

Improves stool consistency, promotes evacuation.

These foods are known to be constipating.

Promotes normal stool consistency.

Prevents skin breakdown.

Limits noxious odors and may help reduce patient embarrassment/concern.

Decreases feelings of frustration and embarrassment.

Promotes regularity by increasing bulk and/or improving stool consistency.

May be needed on a short-term basis when diarrhea persists.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Mobility, impaired physical

May be related to

Decreased strength and endurance, neuromuscular impairment


Perceptual/cognitive impairment

Possibly evidenced by

Impaired coordination, limited ROM; decreased muscle mass, strength, control

Reluctance to attempt movement; inability to purposefully move


Mobility Level (NOC)

Maintain/increase strength and function of affected body parts.

Verbalize willingness to, and participate in, desired activities.

Demonstrate techniques/behaviors that enable continuation or resumption of activities.



Determine functional ability (0–4 scale) and reasons for impairment.

Note emotional/behavioral responses to altered ability.

Plan activities/visits with adequate rest periods as necessary.

Encourage participation in self-care, occupational/
recreational activities.

Provide chairs with firm, high seats and lifting chairs when indicated.

Fall Prevention (NIC)

Assist with transfers and ambulation if indicated; show patient/SO ways to move safely.

Obtain supportive shoes and well-fitting, nonskid slippers.

Remove extraneous furniture from pathways.


Identifies need for/degree of intervention required.

Physical changes and loss of independence often create feelings of anger, frustration, and depression that may be manifested as reluctance to engage in activity.

Prevents fatigue; conserves energy for continued participation.

Promotes independence and self-esteem; may enhance willingness to participate.

Facilitates rising from seated position.

Prevents accidental falls/injury, especially in the patient with altered gait, generalized weakness, orthostatic hypotension, fatigue and vision disturbances.

Assists patient to walk with a firm step/maintain sense of balance and prevents slipping.

Prevents patient from bumping into furniture and reduces risk of falling/injuring self.


Fall Prevention (NIC)


Encourage use of hand rails in hallway, stairwells, and bathrooms. Keep bed height in low position.

Review safe use of mobility aids/adjunctive devices, e.g., walker, braces, prosthetics.

Provide for environmental changes to meet visual deficiencies.

Speak to patient when entering the room, and let patient know when leaving.

Encourage the patient with glasses/contacts to wear them. Be sure glasses are kept clean. Determine reason if glasses are not being worn.


Arrange for regular eye examinations.

Consult with physical/occupational therapists, rehabilitation specialist.


Promotes independence in mobility; reduces risk of falls.

Facilitates activity, reduces risk of injury.

Prevents accidents and reduces sense of sensory deprivation. If patient is visually impaired, will need assistance and ongoing orientation to surroundings.

Special actions help patient who cannot see to know when someone is there.

Optimal visual acuity facilitates participation in activities and reduces risk of falls/injury. Patient may not be wearing glasses because they need adjustment or change in correction.

Identifies development/progression of vision problem (e.g., myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, cataract and glaucoma, tunnel vision, loss of peripheral fields, blindness) and specific options for care.

Useful in creating individual exercise/activity program and identifying adjunctive aids. Note: Even in the elderly population, inclusion of moderate weight-lifting in the exercise program can improve bone density and help maintain muscle tone/strength.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Diversional Activity deficit

May be related to

Environmental lack of diversional activity; long-term care requirements

Physical limitations; psychological condition, e.g., depression

Possibly evidenced by

Statements of boredom, depression, lack of energy

Disinterest, lethargy, withdrawn behavior, hostility


Leisure Participation (NOC)

Recognize own response and initiate appropriate coping actions.

Engage in satisfying activities within personal limitations.


Activity Therapy (NIC)


Determine avocation/hobbies patient previously pursued. Incorporate activities, if appropriate, into present program.

Encourage participation in mix of activities/stimuli, e.g., music, news program, educational presentations, crafts, social interactions, as appropriate.

Provide change of scenery when possible; alter personal environment; encourage trips to shop/participate in local/family events.


Refer to occupational therapist, activity director.


Encourages involvement and helps to stimulate patient mentally/physically to improve overall condition and sense of well-being.

Offering different activities helps patient to try out new ideas and develop new interests. Activities need to be personally meaningful for the patient to derive the most enjoyment from them (e.g., talking or Braille books for the blind, closed-caption TV broadcasts for the deaf/
hearing impaired).

Stimulates energy and provides new outlook for patient.

Can introduce and design new programs to provide positive stimuli for the patient.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Sexuality Patterns, risk for altered

Risk factors may include

Biophychosocial alteration of sexuality

Interference in psychological/physical well-being; self-image

Lack of privacy/SO

Possibly evidenced by

[Not applicable; presence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual diagnosis]


Role Performance (NOC)

Verbalize knowledge and understanding of sexual limitations, difficulties, or changes that have occurred.

Demonstrate improved communication and relationship skills.

Identify appropriate options to meet needs.


Sexual Counseling (NIC)


Note patient/SO cues regarding sexuality.

Determine cultural and religious/value factors and conflicts that may be present.

Assess developmental and lifestyle issues.

Provide atmosphere in which discussion of sexuality is encouraged/permitted.

Provide privacy for patient/SO.


Refer to sex counselor/therapist, family therapy when needed.


May be concerned that condition/environmental restrictions may interfere with sexual function or ability, but is afraid to ask directly.

Affects patient’s perception of existing problems and response of others (e.g., family, staff, other residents). Provides starting point for discussion and problem solving.

Factors such as menopause and aging, adolescence, and young adulthood need to be taken into consideration with regard to sexual concerns about illness and long-term care.

When concerns are identified and discussed, problem solving can occur.

Demonstrates acceptance of need for intimacy and provides opportunity to continue previous patterns of interaction as much as possible.

May require additional assistance for resolution of problems.

NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Health Maintenance, altered

May be related to

Lack of, or significant alteration in, communication skills

Complete or partial lack of gross and/or fine motor skills

Perceptual/cognitive impairment, lack of ability to make deliberate/thoughtful judgments

Lack of material resources

Possibly evidenced by

Demonstrated lack of knowledge regarding basic health practices

Reported/observed inability to take responsibility for meeting basic health needs; impairment of personal support system

Demonstrated lack of behaviors adaptive to internal or external environmental changes


Participation: Health Care Decisions (NOC)

Verbalize understanding of factors contributing to current situation.

Adopt lifestyle changes supporting individual healthcare goals.

Assume responsibility for own healthcare needs when possible.


Health Education (NIC)


Assess level of adaptive behavior; knowledge and skills about health maintenance, environment, and safety.

Provide information about individual healthcare needs.

Develop plan with patient/SO for self-care incorporating existing disabilities adapting and organizing care.

Maintain adequate hydration and balanced diet with sufficient protein intake.

Schedule adequate rest with progressive activity program.

Promote good handwashing and personal hygiene. Use aseptic techniques as necessary.

Protect from exposure to infections; avoid extremes of temperature. Recommend the wearing of masks/

other interventions as indicated.

Encourage cessation of smoking.

Encourage reporting of signs/symptoms as they occur.

Health System Guidance (NIC)

Note patient’s previous use of professional services, and continue as appropriate. Include in choice of new healthcare providers as able.

Observe for/monitor changes in vital signs, e.g., temperature elevation.


Identifies areas of concern/need and aids in choice of interventions.

Provides knowledge base and encourages participation in decision making.

Assists patient/caregiver to maintain and manage desired level of independence when possible.

Promotes general well-being and aids in disease prevention.

Prevents fatigue and enhances general well-being.

Prevents contamination/cross-contamination, reducing risk of illness/infection.

With age, immune protective responses slow down and physiological reactions to temperature extremes may be impaired. As organ function decreases (especially thymus gland) and natural antibodies decline, patients are at increased risk for infection. Staff and/or visitors with colds or other infections may expose patient to these illnesses.

Smokers are prone to bronchitis and ineffective clearing of secretions.

Provides opportunity for early recognition of developing complications and timely intervention to prevent serious illness.

Preserves continuity and promotes independence in meeting own healthcare needs.

Early identification of onset of illness allows for timely intervention and may prevent serious complications. Note: Elderly persons often display subnormal temperatures, so presence of a low-grade fever may be of serious concern.


Health System Guidance (NIC)


Identify resources for/administer medications as indicated:

Immunizations, e.g., Haemophilus influenzae (flu), pneumonia;


Schedule preventive/routine healthcare appointments based on individual needs, e.g., with cardiologist, podiatrist, ophthalmologist, dentist.

Refer to support services as indicated, e.g., home health care agency, durable medical equipment company, Senior Resources, social services, national hospice organization, Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association, AARP, Center for Health Care Ethics, Choice in Dying, American Bar Association, Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly, Internet Resources, Adult Protective Services.


Reduces risk of acquiring contagious/potentially life-threatening diseases.

May be used prophylactically, depending on individual disease process/risk factors and to treat infections.

Promotes optimal recovery/maintenance of health.

Many community resources are available, and often untapped, to make life and care of the individual easier.

POTENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS following discharge from care facility.

Refer to plan of care for diagnosis that required admission.